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Patna District district is one of the districts of Bihar state, India, with Patna as the district headquarters. Patna district is a part of Patna division.Patna district is situated in the south Bihar alluvial plains (Zone III B) among the three agro-climatic zones of divided Bihar. The district is bounded in north by river Ganga, in south by Jahanabad and Nalanda districts, in the east by Lakhisarai district and in the west by Bhojpur district. The district is situated between 25 º 13 ‘ North and 25º 45 ‘ North latitude and 84º43’ East and 25 º 44’ East longitude with a height of 67 meters from M.S.L. (Fig-3.2).

The geographical area of the district is 317236 ha. with 4.13 % land not suitable for cultivation. Patna, besides being the state capital, is also the biggest urban centre of the state. It has highest literacy rate as well as awareness level among the districts of Bihar. It has a ready market for almost all farm and non-farm sector products and is well connected by rail, road and air with almost all the district headquarters and the major cities of the country. (Fig-3.3).

Administratively the district is divided into six subdivisions, twenty-three blocks, 344 Panchayats and 1433 villages (1294 inhabited and 139 uninhabited). (Fig-3.3 and Table 3.2.1) Three tiers Panchayat system is working in Patna since 10/06/2001.

Patna district is surrounded by two river systems namely Ganga in the north and Sone in the west, which falls into Ganga at its northwestern boundary. The river Punpun traverses to a significant stretch from southwest to northeast

The district has the distinction of three agro-ecological situations based on the nature of flooding by these rivers besides two irrigated and unirrigated agro-ecological situations

Agro-ecologically South Bihar Alluvial Plains Zone III B is spread south of river Ganga. Physiographically it is almost plain alluvium, but south of the natural levee of Ganga, there is a parallel stretch of Diara land receiving flash floods. At the eastern end of the district there are stretches of Tal lands where backwaters of Ganga river stagnates in low lands during Kharif season floods between September-December every year. Tal lands extend from Fatuha to Mokameh blocks in the district, here most natural drainage systems i.e. rivers from south simply vanish.

The district has mainly four types of soils ranging from moderately well drained to poorly drain, acidic to slightly alkaline and medium to heavy textured. The climate is of moderate type characterised by quite hot in summers to mild cold in winters. Rainfall is moderate and erratic during Kharif season. The net area sown in the district is 65.16 percent of the total geographical area. The land use classification for the district is detailed in table-3.2.3 below.

The remaining area (34.85 percent) in the district is divided between non-agricultural uses (21.45%), current fallow land (8.55%), barren and uncultivable land (0.11%), permanent pastures and other grazing land (0.04%), plantations (0.15%), gross cropped area is 256694.99 ha. and net area sown is 201103.63 ha. indicating cropping intensity of 127.64 % in the district, which is a bit low as both Tal and Diara areas are mostly mono cropped.(Table-3.2.4).

Total irrigated area in the district is 60545 ha. Out of which canal irrigation accounts for the highest being as high as 60% but some areas do not receive irrigation water at proper cropping time particularly at the tail ends. Sometime this sone canal system does not provide irrigation during entire year. Block wise areas under different AES have been given in table-3.2.5.

Patna district being the state capital is rich in developmental departments for research and Extension. It has got Central Government institutions like ICAR –Research Complex for Eastern Region, Central Potato Research Station, Rice Research Station, Coconut Board, Central Plant Protection office, and institutes of Rajendra Agricultural University, Pusa, such as Agricultural research institute, Bihar Veterinary College, and S.G.Institute of dairy technology. The other research units important to the farmers of the district are water and Land Management Institute, Bihar State Cooperative Milk Federation, Fisheries Training Institute, DNS Regional Cooperative Training Institute. All the major developmental institutions of the Government of Bihar have their headquarters in Patna.

Source-District Credit Plan-2002-2003
In spite of all the odds Patna district have been may special feature relevant for its agricultural development. It has ready market for almost all farm and non-farm sector goods, It is well connected with all major business centre of country and state through rail, road and metropolitans by air, climate is conducive for agriculture /horticulture crops all necessary farm as well as non-farm inputs are available of competitive price ,highly educated and skilled workforce available for industry development in primary secondary and tertiary sectors and districts is comparatively better than other district of state in infrastructure facilities. Agriculture is predominant economic activity in the district followed by dairy, poultry, fishery besides other allied agricultural activities and services in non-farm sector. Industrial activities are in a very poor shape either due to shifting of the entrepreneurs from the district or due to lack of governmental support.


Description . Units . . Units
Headquarters: PATNA . Total Area: 3202.0 sq. Kms.
Forest Area : 0.0 sq. Kms. Net Sown Area: 2115.77 sq. Kms.
Occupied House: 474.94 '000 Net Irrigation Area : 1253.08 sq. Kms.
Total Population 3618.21 '000 Total Literates 1647.18 '000
Total Male 1938.34 '000 Total Female 1679.87 '000
Urban Population 1376.7 '000 Rural Population 2241.51 '000
Rural Population - Male 1189.83 '000 Rural Population - Female 1051.68 '000
Urban Population - Male 748.51 '000 Urban Population - Female 628.19 '000
Total SC Population 560.09 '000 Total ST Population 5.37 '000
SC Population - Rural 423.09 '000 ST Population - Rural 1.29 '000
SC Population - Urban 137.0 '000 ST Population - Urban 4.08 '000
Total Male Literacy 1091.31 '000 Total Female Literacy 555.87 '000
Rural Literates 801.39 '000 Urban Literates 845.79 '000
Rural Literates - Male 578.96 '000 Rural Literates - Female 222.44 '000
Urban Literates - Male 512.35 '000 Urban Literates - Female 333.44 '000
Rural Male Literacy % 60.79 %
Rural Female Literacy % 26.87 %
Urban Male Literacy % 81.63 %
Urban Female Literacy % 64.59 %
Total Workers ('000)
Male Workers ('000)

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