Patna District district is one of the districts of Bihar state, India, with Patna
as the district headquarters. Patna district is a part of Patna division.Patna district
is situated in the south Bihar alluvial plains (Zone III B) among the three agro-climatic
zones of divided Bihar. The district is bounded in north by river Ganga, in south
by Jahanabad and Nalanda districts, in the east by Lakhisarai district and in the
west by Bhojpur district. The district is situated between 25 º 13 ‘
North and 25º 45 ‘ North latitude and 84º43’ East and 25 º
44’ East longitude with a height of 67 meters from M.S.L. (Fig-3.2).
The geographical area of the district is 317236 ha. with 4.13 % land not suitable
for cultivation. Patna, besides being the state capital, is also the biggest urban
centre of the state. It has highest literacy rate as well as awareness level among
the districts of Bihar. It has a ready market for almost all farm and non-farm sector
products and is well connected by rail, road and air with almost all the district
headquarters and the major cities of the country. (Fig-3.3).
Administratively the district is divided into six subdivisions, twenty-three blocks,
344 Panchayats and 1433 villages (1294 inhabited and 139 uninhabited). (Fig-3.3
and Table 3.2.1) Three tiers Panchayat system is working in Patna since 10/06/2001.
Patna district is surrounded by two river systems namely Ganga in the north and
Sone in the west, which falls into Ganga at its northwestern boundary. The river
Punpun traverses to a significant stretch from southwest to northeast
The district has the distinction of three agro-ecological situations based on the
nature of flooding by these rivers besides two irrigated and unirrigated agro-ecological
Agro-ecologically South Bihar Alluvial Plains Zone III B is spread south of river
Ganga. Physiographically it is almost plain alluvium, but south of the natural levee
of Ganga, there is a parallel stretch of Diara land receiving flash floods. At the
eastern end of the district there are stretches of Tal lands where backwaters of
Ganga river stagnates in low lands during Kharif season floods between September-December
every year. Tal lands extend from Fatuha to Mokameh blocks in the district, here
most natural drainage systems i.e. rivers from south simply vanish.
The district has mainly four types of soils ranging from moderately well drained
to poorly drain, acidic to slightly alkaline and medium to heavy textured. The climate
is of moderate type characterised by quite hot in summers to mild cold in winters.
Rainfall is moderate and erratic during Kharif season. The net area sown in the
district is 65.16 percent of the total geographical area. The land use classification
for the district is detailed in table-3.2.3 below.
The remaining area (34.85 percent) in the district is divided between non-agricultural
uses (21.45%), current fallow land (8.55%), barren and uncultivable land (0.11%),
permanent pastures and other grazing land (0.04%), plantations (0.15%), gross cropped
area is 256694.99 ha. and net area sown is 201103.63 ha. indicating cropping intensity
of 127.64 % in the district, which is a bit low as both Tal and Diara areas are
mostly mono cropped.(Table-3.2.4).
Total irrigated area in the district is 60545 ha. Out of which canal irrigation
accounts for the highest being as high as 60% but some areas do not receive irrigation
water at proper cropping time particularly at the tail ends. Sometime this sone
canal system does not provide irrigation during entire year. Block wise areas under
different AES have been given in table-3.2.5.
Patna district being the state capital is rich in developmental departments for
research and Extension. It has got Central Government institutions like ICAR –Research
Complex for Eastern Region, Central Potato Research Station, Rice Research Station,
Coconut Board, Central Plant Protection office, and institutes of Rajendra Agricultural
University, Pusa, such as Agricultural research institute, Bihar Veterinary College,
and S.G.Institute of dairy technology. The other research units important to the
farmers of the district are water and Land Management Institute, Bihar State Cooperative
Milk Federation, Fisheries Training Institute, DNS Regional Cooperative Training
Institute. All the major developmental institutions of the Government of Bihar have
their headquarters in Patna.
Source-District Credit Plan-2002-2003
In spite of all the odds Patna district have been may special feature relevant for
its agricultural development. It has ready market for almost all farm and non-farm
sector goods, It is well connected with all major business centre of country and
state through rail, road and metropolitans by air, climate is conducive for agriculture
/horticulture crops all necessary farm as well as non-farm inputs are available
of competitive price ,highly educated and skilled workforce available for industry
development in primary secondary and tertiary sectors and districts is comparatively
better than other district of state in infrastructure facilities. Agriculture is
predominant economic activity in the district followed by dairy, poultry, fishery
besides other allied agricultural activities and services in non-farm sector. Industrial
activities are in a very poor shape either due to shifting of the entrepreneurs
from the district or due to lack of governmental support.