About the District of Jehanabad
Jehanabad was carved out of old Gaya district on 1st August, 1986. It was a sub-division
of the Gaya since 1872. The main aim behind the creation of this district was to
accelerate the pace of development in tandem with tackling the problems of extremism,
poverty, unemployment and underdevelopment.
The city of Jehanabad, which is the head quarter of the district, is situated at
the confluence of the rivers Dardha & Yamuna. According to the provisional estimate,
this district is situated in between 25-0’ to 25-15’ degree north latitude
and 84-31’ to 85-15’ eastern north latitude. Its surrounding districts
are the district of Patna in north, Gaya in south, Nalanda in east and the newly
created district of Arwal in the west. Major part of the land in the district is
plain. The rivers Sone, Phalgu, Dardha & Yamuna cris-cross the district. The
river Sone that touches the western part of the district is the only perennial river.
Rest of the rivers are seasonal. The river Phalgu has got religious importance where
the Hindus offer “PIND DAN” to their fore fathers.
The climate of Jehanabad is of extreme nature, i.e. very hot in the summers and
biting cold in the winters. The average rainfall of the district is 1074.5 mm. Out
of the total rainfall 90 percent comes from monsoons. The economy of the district
is agriculture based. The soil is very much fertile known as “KEWAL”
in local terms. This soil is very suitable for the production of rice, wheat, cane,
The district of Jehanabad has a certain place in the history of India. The description
is found in the famous book “aine-e-akbari”. The book says that the
place was badly affected by famine in the 17th century and people were dying of
hunger. The Moghul Emperor Aurangzeb, in whose time the book was re-written, established
a Mandi for relief of the people and named the “Mandi” as “JAHANARA”.
The Mandi was under the direct control and supervision of Jahanara. It is believed
that she spent a great deal of time here. In the course of time, the place came
to be known as “JAHANARABAD” and later as “JEHANABAD”.
SPOT LIGHT ON Archaeological remains in Jehanabad
Today Jehanabad is known more for its minuses than for its pluses but that wasn’t
always the case. Tradition and legends. Hindu as well as Buddhist, take down the
history of Jehanabad to a period of hoary antiquity. The district abounds in ancient
and medieval sites, mounds and ruins, some of which contain archaeological remains
of considerable importance.
Of the various places in the district which have yielded archaeological remains,
Barabar, Dharawat and Dabthu occupy notable positions. The earliest of the archaeological
remains in the district are to be found in the Barabar and Nagarjuni hills. The
credit for unraveling the charm and appeal of the Barabar hills goes to the celebrated
British writer E.M. Forster. His A Passage to India is replete with references to
the Barabar hills by simply changing the name of the hills and caves to Marabar.
The Barabar hills situated about 14 Kms. East of Makhdumpur railway station in Jehanabad
district is famous for its rock cut caves which are supposed to be the earliest
examples of cave Architecture in north India. During the reign of Ashoka, for caves
were excavated in the Barabar hills for the ascetics of Ajivika sect. These are
known as Sudama, Vishwajhopri, Karnchaupar and Lomas rishi and are excavated in
the hardest granite with infinite care and the interior surface of all of them contains
high polish and are burnished like glass. In the Nagarjuni range about 1 Km to the
north east of Barabar hills there are three excavated caves containing the inscriptions
of Ashoka’s grandson Dusratha. These are known as Gopi, Vahiyaka and Vedathika.
For sheer panoramic grandeur and rugged natural beuty very few places in the district
can be compared to the northern portion of the Barabar hills. From a distance, the
twin hills of Barabar and Nagarjuni look like a dragoon slithering slowly towards
the horizon. The Archaeological survey of India (ASI) has also sent a proposal to
the UNESCO for inclusion of Barabar hills in the world heritage list of monuments.
Dharaut about 10 Kms north west of Barabar hills, has been identified as the site
of the Buddhist monantery of Gunamati. Not only does the position of Dharaut correspond
with the account of itinerary given by the Chinese pilgrim Huen Tsang but the site
of the ruins also agrees with his description. At the foot of the Kunwa hill which
shut in Dharaut on the south stretches a large tank known as Chandrapokhar. The
name of the tank perpetuates the legend that it was excavated by Raja Chandra Sen.
Two modern temples at its north eastern corner once contained a large collection
of ancient statues. The most remarkable was a colossal image of twelve armed Avalokiteswara
Boddhisatva which has now been shifted to the Patna musiam.
Six Kms east of Hulasganj in Jehanabad, Dabthu is chiefly known for its finally
carved images and ruins of temples.
A noted scholar and historian FH Hamilton visited Dabthu and adjoing villages in
1811-12. His travelogue contained descriptions of dilapidated structures of magnificent
temples including a jain temple, a mausoleum of a sufi saint and numerous images
of Hindu gods and goddesses around the temples. Buchanan also talks of a sprawing
earthen mound which is still extant. Now little remains of those shrines and idols
as described by hamilton and Buchanan. However, in the remains of ancient shrines
one can still see images of deities mutilated and decayed by ravages of time.
About 25 Kms south-west of Jehanabad Ghejan is known for a number of ancient Budhist
and Brahminical statues. The most interesting of them being a large seated diadem.
There was also a large statue of Avalokiteswara with an inscription on the pedestal
stating that it was the gift of Sthavira Ratn, who came from Nalanda and dedicated
it for the benefit of his two disciples. This piece of Bodhist sculpture has since
being shifted to the Patna Musiam.
According to legend, Budha is said to have stayed in the village for a few days
while on way to Gaya to attain enlightenment. He had also delivered sermons to a
select group of disciples in the village. Later Bimbisar, emperor of Magadh setup
a monastery in the village to commemorate Budha’s visit. The ruins of an ancient
brick temple also exist in the village and there is also a temple containing a large
standing figure of Tara, now worshiped as Bhagwati.
At a time when vested interest are working over time to spread frenzy in the country,
a small, unobtrusive Dargah at Kako in Jehanabad stands as a beacon of social harmony
and peace for thousands of devotees belonging to both communities, Muslium and Hindus.
Bibi Kamal preached religious tolerance and love in opposition to orthodoxy. For
her, there was but one God and the world the reflection of God who permeates every
People irrespective of their faith visit the Dargah of Bibi Kamal. Bibi Kamal’s
Urs takes place in November every year when cooked rice is distributed amoung devotees
seeking her blessings
The language spoken here is “MAGAHI”, a dialect of Hindi.
There is one sub-division and seven blocks in this district. The blocks are Jehanabad,
Makhdumpur, Kako, Ghoshi, Modanganj, Hulasganj and Ratni. The last three blocks
are of recent origin. Besides the district police headquarter, there are 13 reserved
Police Stations in the district.
The district is linked both by road route and rail route. The Patna-Gaya branch
railway line, popularly known as the “P.G. Line”, crosses through this
district and links the main line of Patna and Grand Chord Line of Gaya. There are
four-railway stations and 31 km long railway line in this district. The road route
is via Masaurhi block of Patna district, which goes directly to Gaya via Makhdumpur
block of this district.Road distance from Patna is 70 Kms. and from Gaya is 45 Kms.
Jehanabad district is a predominantly agricultural district. The soil is highly
fertile. This district is densely populated. Paddy, wheat, maize and pulses are
the main agricultural crops raised by farmers in the district. Cane is also grown
in some parts of the district.
The total land available in the district is 3,87,157 acres. Forest coverage is very
small having less than 0.5% of the total available area under forest. The net sown
area available for cultivation is 2,67,833 acres, which is 69.18% of the total available
No major minerals are found in the district.
There is an industrial area in the district of Jehanabad which is spread in the
area of six acres on Jehanabad-Kako Road