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Banka District

The district of Banka is situated in far south - east of the State Bihar. The eastern and southern border of the district conisides with district Godda of the state - Jharkhand. In west and north east it touches Jamui and Munger district respectively. The old district Bhagalpur is situated in the north side of Banka.

The geographical area of the district is 305621 hectare ie 3019.3465 Sqkm.

The district head quater of Banka is situated in Banka town. The district has been established on 21st, February, 1991. Earlier it was a Sub-Division of a the district Bhagalpur.

The district consists 11 blocks and two towns Banka and Amarpur.

Amarpur, Banka, Barahat, Belhar, Bounsi, Chandan, Dhoraiya, Fullidumar, Katoriya, Rajoun, Shambhuganj

The recognition of the district is Mandar Hill ( Mandar Parwat ) situated at Bounsi Block at about 18 Km from the District Head quarter raising its head since the epic period.

The glorious fair Bounsi mela is held every year in the month of January. The fair starts from 14th January ( Makar Sankranti day ) every year and continues for a month. The Mandar Hill is related with a story of Skand Puran of epic period.

Natural Division:-

The border of the district is adjacent to the state Jharkhand. Therefore the physical character ( Natural environment ) of the district resembles with that of Jharkhand. Chanan is the main river of the district.

The river Chanan is the largest river of the Hill streams in the district. It rises just in the north part of Deogher in Jharkhand state. It passes near Banka and joins the Ganges at Ghogha ( Bhagalpur District ). The Chanan river scheme irrigates a large area of land in Banka district.

North part of Banka has generally a plain surface except the southern area adjoining Santhalpargana ( Jharkhand). The land begins to rise at an easy ascent near or after of Banka, Barahat, so south of Banka hilly tracts commence. Thus the district of Banka has 60% of hilly area.

The river Belharni and Barua flows in the north-western area of the district. Chanan and Orhni flows from middle of the district. The river Cheer meets river Chanan in the north- eastern of Mandar Giri which rises in the east of Mandar.

The plains of Banka is formed from several streams of the these river. The plain area is very fertile.

These river are perinial. It almost dries in summer but are flood effect in rainy season.

Chanan and Barua rivers has been made useful by constructing embankments and channels. These channels irrigates the fertile lands as well as prevents floods also.

As a result of these channels water from rivers of the district is self sufficient in production of grain, fruits, vegetables etc.

Flora and Founa

The district has some forested area under Banka, Bounsi Katoriya forest ranges. The wood of Banka range lie on the Hill slopes, those in the other two ranges lie in undulating land. Among the prominent variety of trees in forested areas are the Sal which is usually found associated with Abuns, Asan, Kendu and Mahua. Tasar worms are reared on Asan trees. Some other trees are Bahera, Kadam, Amaltas. Among the specials of the Acacia are Babul, Sirish, and Sain Babul. Among the fruits trees those of Mango and Jack fruits are common. Plantains, Date plants, Plums, Jamun are some of the other important fruits trees.

Monkeys are common in the district, particularly the Hanuman. So are Jackal, Dear, lion, Bear, Leopards, Elephants are some times met with. Among the latter are Barsingha and Sambhar. Wild geese, Duck, Leel, and Quail are some of the game birds inhabiting the district. Peacocks, Parrots, Hawks, and Doves are other birds found in Katoriya forest/ Chandan forest. Sparrows, Crows and Vultures are of course common.

Several kinds of fishes are found eg. Rohu, Katla, Boari, and Tengra. Bachwa, Jhinga and Pothi are other Varieties.

Climatic Conditions

The Climate of this district is characterized by a hot Summer and a pleasant Winter Season. March to June comprises the summer months while the cold season lasts from November to February. Monsoon sets in sometimes in the part of June and the rains continue till September, October being a transional month.The district also received some winter rains.

The south west monsoon generally breaks in during the second half of June. The bulk of the rainfall occurs in July and August. The average annual rain fall is 1200 mm almost uniformly throughout the district.

Kark Rekha passes through North Part of the District so the temperature rises upto 450C In winter season average temperature is 150 C

Land use Pattern Agriculture

The main occupation of the people of Banka District is agriculture. The Land in seven Blocks out of Eleven Blocks of the District is Plain and Fertile . The rest four Blocks Chandan, Katoriya and Bounsi are Hilly. Irrigation has been made available by cannels and the wells. Irrigation Facilities are available in 66072 Hec. of land out of 747801 Hec cultivable land. Paddy is far and away the most important crop of the District. It covers the largest proportion of the gross sown. Wheat is the main rubbi crop.

Sugarcane is the most important non food crop ( Cash crop ) of the district. The farmers of Amarpur, Rajoun, Dhoraiya, circle grows sugarcane in abundance. Therefore there are several mills to produce ( Gur ) Molasses from sugarcane.

Irrigation Facilities

Agriculture depends mainly on the availabilities of water at proper time and in proper quantity. In the past the main source of water had been rainfall. However on account of failure of monsoon at times or premature cessation of rainfall the need for Irrigation was felt. Before the abolition of Zamindari the Zamindars used to maintain ahars and pyres which severed the twin purpose of irrigation and drainage. Besides these channels there were dug wells for irrigation purposes.

After independence the government has under different five years plans drawn up and executed various schemes for irrigation. Important among the major schemes being the following

1. Chandan Reservoir Irrigation scheme.

2. Kajia Danr Irrigation Scheme.

3. Bdua Reservoir Project.

4. Chandan, Belasi Irrigation Scheme - Banka

5. Orhni Reservoir Irrigation Project- Banka Fullidumer

6. Laxmipur Reservoir Irrigation Project - Bounsi

Fish rearing has also been provided in these reservoir along with irrigation schemes.

Irrigation facilities has been made available from these reservoir by constructing channels till far north area of Rajoun Circle also.

Live Stocks

The term livestock includes cattle ( Cows, Bulls, and Bullocks) Buffaloes, Sheep and Pigs. The cattle in the district are generally not of very good quality. The government has taken up various measures to improve the breed of the cattle. Artificial insemination centers have also been open at various centers in the district. A number of Vetanary Hospitals and Dispensaries including the District Hospital are functioning at various places in the district for general welfare of the animals. There has been a marked progress in vateneary matters in the district in recent past. As a results of these efforts the district is self sufficient in milk production. No milk is imported from out side the district.


A number of reservoir, tanks are used for pisiculture in the district. The State government has also taken up a few scheme of development of fisheries. These efforts couldn't fulfill the demand. The chief fish market and trade center is Amarpur. Traders buy fishes from different center out side the district.

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